Although many miles from the coast in rural Worcestershire Eastham Bridge played its part in WWII.
Bridges were strategic locations during wartime, and controlling crossing points would have been important for any defender. In World War II Eastham Bridge was no different and was included in the huge efforts to create defences across the country in the event of invasion. Pill boxes, checkpoints, anti-tank defences, and gun emplacements sprung up across the country. Worcestershire was heavily defenced as it was the place where everyone would have retreated to if invasion had come, and the Government and Royal Family would have been evacuated here.
Today it can be hard to imagine the extensive efforts to create defences across the country. To ensure that this part of our history was not forgotten a major project took place from 1995-2001 called Defence of Britain, run by the Council for British Archaeology. The aim was to train volunteers to go out and record what had existed and what could be seen today, and to bring it into an archive to preserve the record. This was important as much that had survived was fast disappearing, and people’s memories of what had stood were fading.
In Worcestershire there was a fantastic group of individuals who came forward, who worked with Worcestershire Historic Environment & Archaeology Service (now Worcestershire Archive & Archaeology Service). They went out and recorded thousands of sites and spoke to many people. They helped ensure that the county was one of the best recorded and showed how extensive the preparations were here. The results are held nationally, but also in the local Historic Environment Record at the Hive.
Although nothing exists at Eastham Bridge today, we know that there was a pill box on its north side. It was thought to be square, made of brick with a concrete roof, although, at the time of the visit in 1996, nothing existed apart from the odd brick. There was some evidence of holes on the south side of the bridge where barriers could be slotted in. It would have been dismantled soon after the war ended, and faded into history.
On the record sheet someone has noticed the different bricks on the bridge near the site of the pill box and wondered if the Home Guard blew it up! It was not unknown for the Home Guard to be rather exuberant. However as we’ve mentioned in a previous post this will relate to the repairs that took place in the 1890s rather than any wartime damage.
The new Eastham Bridge is now open, and is the latest in a series of crossings over the Teme in the area (hence the name of this blog – Eastham Crossings). The first bridge was created in 1793/4.
Why was the bridge built? Rivers are difficult obstacles to cross, but people need to cross them to visit people, transport goods and livestock, buy produce and many other reasons. On early maps bridges and fords are often highlighted as they were important local landmarks people would want to know about. Local people we’ve spoken to in Eastham have identified some possible fords near Eastham, but these could be dangerous and to negotiate safely would sometimes be dependent upon the weather and height of the river. Parish registers record two drownings at crossings in the 1790s, but there may have been other travellers who died too.
We are fortunate in knowing a lot about the story behind the bridge through the survival of an amazing set of documents which were kept in the church chest, and from the investigation of local historians.
In 1790 Eastham residents were discussing the possibility of creating a bridge. It may be that it had been talked about for many years, but 1790 is when Rev Christopher Whitehead arrived in Eastham as Rector. Not only did he join in the discussion but he took an active role and kept the letters and minutes produced which means we know what happened. They also reveal the local politics and concerns and hint at the characters of the people involved.
Building a bridge (and approaching road) required the support and permission of the landowners, just as it does today. The main landowners were Sir Edward Winnington, MP and Lord of the Manor, and the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. Sir Edward was in support of the project and said he was happy to gift the land for the benefit of the local community.
Constructing a bridge is never cheap, and money would be needed to pay for it, even if the land was given. It was estimated that it would cost £300, with another £300 for a toll house. Christopher Whitehead drew up a proposal for local people to gain their support and to encourage them to support the project financially. In it he stressed the benefits of the bridge, and how it would increase the value of the land of the southern (Eastham) side of the Teme, as villagers would have easier access to the road on the other side so they could transport their goods easier and cheaper. It was also said that the only current crossing for five miles was starting to become impassable. The document included the proposal that people buy shares for not less than £50.
There was a question as to whether it was legal to charge a toll without an Act of Parliament, or whether it should be free once the costs were paid off. It was reported that people already paid one shilling per team of animals to cross the ford, so they shouldn’t mind paying to cross the better bridge. The legal aspect was overcome by asking the Turnpike Trust to take charge, and they split the money from the tolls 50:50. The tolls would pay for repairs, ensuring that those involved wouldn’t be responsible for upkeep and repairs, a big consideration and one which meant many roads around the county were never properly maintained.
Whitehead also drew a sketch plan of the proposed new road, and where the bridge would be. It would cut across land called Mr Barnes Hopyard, owned by the Ecclesiastical Commissioners (it is thought Mr Barnes was the agent) and farmed by Mr Whitcomb, whose family had farmed in Eastham for a number of generations and rented land off Winnginton too.
A list within the documents shows the subscribers, which consisted of the main local residents, recorded by Whitehead who was treasurer. Contributions started at two guineas, with the largest payment £50, by Whitehead himself. As shares were supposed to be at least £50 it is not known if they changed the rules or if lost documents show subsequent payments. A share entitled someone to free passage, although this led to some future disputes as they tried to clarify what had been originally agreed.
Now the bridge had the go ahead and the funding to build it. James Brasier and Joseph Harris, agents of Sir Edward Winnington, took on the role of finding an architect. Mr Rose was appointed, and with his help they sought a builder. Thomas Nelson of Newport St, Worcester, tendered, and it was offered to him when his quote came in at £283, just under the estimate. In the days before good roads, lorries, and B&Q, materials were sourced locally whenever possible. Once again we are fortunate in having the documents to help us identify where the materials came from – stone from Jack Green’s Quarry (known as Quarry Hill even today), bricks made from clay dug close by, and lime also found locally.
The building appears to have gone smoothly. There is a drowning at the location, Whitcomb’s Ford (probably names after the local farming family), just after the work began. Roger Morris, when writing the history of the bridge, wonders if this is an accident by one of the labourers, or whether it might just be an unfortunate traveller. A couple of letters from Brasier to the Rector suggest that Whitcomb, who rented the adjacent fields, was becoming a bit frustrated by the effect of the works, and was having to pay for fencing himself. Brasier says he’d like to pay for this so the matter is resolved quickly and Whitcomb isn’t inconvenienced.
The bridge was due to be completed September 1793 according to one letter, and this date is often used in books. The documents may tell a different story as there are receipts throughout 1794, the last being 27 December 1794 for lime, suggesting it was finished later 1794 or early 1795. The impact on Eastham must have been great, as crossing the river was now so much easier.
The fantastic collection of documents which Whitehead left behind were passed on the Worcestershire Archive & Archaeology Service last year as a deposit, and are kept in The Hive for safekeeping and are available for people to use. They have already been well used by the archaeologists who were recording the remains of the bridge and much of the archaeology matched the historical record.
In future posts we’ll look at the later history, including arguments over the tolls, and the partial collapse in the 1890s.
Worcestershire Archive & Archaeology Service’s archaeologists have been helping in a number of ways at Eastham Bridge over the past year.
Soon after the bridge collapsed we were asked to go and record the remains. The bridge was a Grade II listed building, so Historic England & Malvern Hills District Council asked that a photographic record be taken before and after work was carried out on the remains to ensure everything was documented. Archaeologists were also required to be present during works, to record any parts of the structure revealed during the process, and to monitor the creation of a works compound to record any archaeological features that were uncovered.
Our buildings archaeologist Tim went up to the site to carry out the recording. The nature of site meant that recording the remains in the middle had to be done from a distance. As debris was cleared to allow what remained to be made safe, he recorded what was uncovered on the banks.
Although we have lots of expertise in recording historic structures, we often work with other specialists who bring their own skills. Aerial-Cam are a local company who provide specialist archaeological site photography via drones and telescopic poles. They produced a 3D image of the bridge which can be seen here:
We also carried out research in the archives, and spoke to local residents to build up a picture of the chronology of the bridge’s history and relate the physical evidence to what could be seen. Eastham is lucky to have some very dedicated local historians, who’ve carried out a lot of research on the history of the bridge and the crossing. Tim went to see some of these people and look at their sources, and was amazed with what he found. There were lots of letters and plans relating to the different phases of building and rebuilding the bridge, and he said that it may be one of the best recorded structures in the county! Some of these documents have since been deposited in the archives in The Hive for safekeeping.
The results of the survey of the bridge matched the documents well. The bridge was built in 1793, with the southern half rebuilt in 1898 after it collapsed. The “ashlar for the springing of the arches” and “backing up the arches with rubble stone work” mentioned in the documents could be seen in the remaining parts of the northern fabric, and Staffordshire Brindle bricks and concrete mortar with a concrete and rubble infill could be seen in the southern half. All of these were visible in the remaining fabric. The construction methods and materials seen as well the documentary evidence mean that we have a remarkably complete picture of the construction and development of the bridge. One exception were the tie rods which were added 19thC which we could find no reference to in the written record.
As the groundworks for the new bridge progressed, we were on hand to keep an eye out for any traces of earlier crossings: the research suggested that there was no earlier bridge, and the archaeology agreed. Digging was required on the north bank so we excavated the area first before work started. The 1839 Tithe map and 1903 OS maps showed the presence of a toll house, which could also be seen in a mid 19thC watercolour, and as we dug down we found the foundations. The bridge originally charged a toll (with a few exceptions as told in the archives) until the County Council took it over in 1898. It stayed as a house until around 1910 when it was demolished when the Tenbury road was widened.
Another part of our work was to carry out a watching brief when the compound on the south side of the river was created to enable a base to be set up for workers. The project team checked with our Historic Environment Advisors to see if there was any archaeology they should avoid. Records indicated that it would come close to the site of a possible medieval castle, so we advised where best to site it to avoid disturbing anything. Although building a compound only usually requires going down a small depth into the topsoil, there was a small possibility finds or features relating to the castle may still be uncovered, so an archaeologist was on hand just in case. Nothing was uncovered during this work, so any traces of the castle will be left safely for another day.
Everything which we recorded at the site will be made available for anyone to view. It is a condition of all archaeological work that it is fully written up, put onto the Historic Environment Record , and made publicly available. This means that anyone who wants to find out more in the future can discover what works were carried out, and what was uncovered. The painstaking process of writing-up our work isn’t often covered in the media, which tends to focus on the excitement of discovery, but it’s crucial to ensure that the knowledge gained is not lost. You can read the report here P4867 Eastham Bridge report rev2. In future posts we’ll look in more details at the history of the bridge, the archives we looked at, and the Toll House.